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Johannes Brahms

Johannes Brahms

(1833 - 1897)

The music of Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 - April 3, 1897) represents the furthest development of one strain of Nineteenth-Century Romanticism. Broadly speaking, one can distinguish five lines of development: the Beethoven-Mendelssohn-Schumann-Brahms; Liszt-Wagner-Bruckner-Strauss; folk-lore nationalism; Italian opera; and French, both operatic and symphonic. Some of this overlaps, of course. One can view Brahms, for example, with his deep artistic attachment to German folklore and older music, as a German nationalist.

The son of a musician, Brahms received piano, cello, horn, harmony, and composition lessons from an early age. He made his first public appearance as a ten-year-old pianist, playing an etude by Herz and participating in chamber works by Mozart and Beethoven. As far as his composing went, the more fantastic Romantics like E.T.A. Hoffmann and Callot, as well as the poetry of Eichendorff and Heine and folk and medieval sources, influenced him most. One finds in early Brahms a cultivation of the bizarre, a strain which he ruthlessly excised from his decades-later revisions of early work. Most of his early music concentrates on the piano and on chamber music featuring the piano – no surprise there.

In 1853, Brahms met Schumann, whose music he had at first dismissed during a short-lived infatuation with the school of Liszt, and then enthusiastically studied. Schumann, for his part, raved over the compositions Brahms had shown him and published an influential article ("Neue Bahnen," "New Paths") which praised the young man as having "sprung, like Minerva, fully-armed from the head of the son of Cronus." Schumann had put his finger on a major quality of Brahms' music: its ability to convince you of its artistic completeness and abundance and its apparently easy seamlessness and inexorable flow. Brahms became attached to the Schumann family, especially, after Schumann's insanity and death, to Schumann's wife Clara and daughter Julie. Brahms took care of the household so Clara could earn money as a touring pianist. For many years, romantic rumors circulated about Brahms and Clara, but Clara seems never to have regarded Brahms as anything more than a devoted son. For his part, Brahms, although capable of temporary infatuations, deliberately kept himself away from marriage, for he believed in the incompatibility between an artistic career and a family. Nevertheless, Clara remained, notwithstanding occasional tiffs, perhaps Brahms' closest musical advisor and confidante, up to her death in 1896.

In the 1850s, Brahms turned from chamber music to orchestral music for the first time and produced, the first Serenade, the Piano Concerto #1, and the second Serenade. The Piano Concerto, one of his most turbulent, Sturm und Drang works, was actually booed and hissed at its premiere, which wounded the composer but also stirred him to revise. In the aftermath of the concerto fiasco, he temporarily lost his publisher (Breitkopf & Härtel), but eventually hooked up with Simrock, who remained his major publisher.

A creative block afflicted Brahms during the mid-1850s. He felt at a loss, written-out. He turned to a study of strict counterpoint – canon, fugue, invertible counterpoint – writing a series of exercises and polyphonic works. Some of these found their way into later pieces. However, it also turned Brahms into a contrapuntal master, perhaps the best since Bach. It comes out most in his choral music, but it runs through his instrumental music as well (the finale to the Haydn Variations and the Fourth Symphony, for example), often when you least expect it.

In 1860, infuriated by an editorial in the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, Brahms and the composer-violinist Joachim published a reply. The editorial contended that the marriage of literature and music was the only true path for the "music of the future." Brahms, who saw himself as a musician of the future, contended that music should proceed on its own logic, rather than essentially Mickey-Mouse a literary plot. He objected mainly to the tone poems of Liszt, but the quarrel got away from him. He was seen in opposition to Berlioz and Wagner as well (both of whom he admired), and this precipitated the so-called Brahms-Wagner split of the latter Nineteenth Century – the fight between the Wagnerites and the "Brahmins." It says much for Brahms' stature, and he's not yet thirty, that he becomes a (very unwilling) pole in this argument.

Around this time, Brahms began to seek conducting positions. He was turned down by his native town, Hamburg, to direct the city orchestra but was accepted by the Vienna Singakademie. Brahms had previously led a women's chorus in Hamburg and an amateur choir at the Detmold court. All this experience led to the composition of a number of choral works, among the finest of their time. Brahms' choral music falls into three broad categories: "antiquarian," where the influence of J.S. Bach and Heinrich Schütz is particularly felt; "folk," arrangements of folk-songs and folk-like original tunes; and extensions of the Romantic choral works of Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Schumann. In 1865, Brahms' mother died. He responded creatively with Ein deutsches Requiem (1866-67, premiered in its entirety in 1869). Brahms had been a well-respected young composer before. This work swept through Europe, from Britain to Russia, and vaulted Brahms to the front rank of Nineteenth-Century composers. He was seriously regarded – and just as bitterly mocked – as Beethoven's successor, which, in my opinion, gave him the willies. Beethoven had been a presence in his creative life for a long time. Now the presence had become so strong, it threatened to cut off his creative work. It says much for Brahms' will and fortitude that he kept on.

During the 1870s, he struggled to master both the string quartet and especially the symphony. People expected a symphony from Beethoven's supposed successor. Nevertheless, when he turned to orchestral music again, he did so with the marvelous Variations on a Theme by Haydn (1873). His first symphony (begun, by the way, in 1862) appeared in 1876. Even after a successful premiere, he felt compelled to revise the slow movement before publication. Brahms became a ruthless revisor of his own music. We know he submitted many of his major works to this process, but often we haven't the earlier versions, since he destroyed most of his earlier drafts. The chips from his workshop are few and far between. In the cases where earlier versions have survived (usually because they were published), one does notice a pattern of cutting out more fantastical, even bizarre, passages in favor of classical proportion and restraint. As a result, we have a kind of Official Portrait of Brahms' music. We get only glimpses of the fan of Callot.

Brahms' catalogue grew to include four symphonies, a second piano concerto, a violin concerto, a double concerto for violin and cello, and a mountain of chamber music and songs. The songs are perhaps the most neglected part of his output, with the exception of certain "hits" and the magnificent, late Four Serious Songs, written in response to the death of Clara Schumann. It turns out he was a canny businessman as well, aiming many works for the middle-class domestic market. For example, he made four-hand piano arrangements of each of his symphonies, a smart move in the era before recorded sound. He also arranged Ein deutsches Requiem, his most popular work, for piano and choir, thus ensuring more performances among amateur societies. He amassed enough money to even play the stock market, which he did successfully. He lived well within his means and used most of his money to support family, friends, young musicians, and scholars in whose projects he took an interest. He managed to give up public performance as early as the 1870s to devote himself to composition. He died, long resident in Vienna, of liver cancer in 1897.

His lasting influence has been as a symphonist and chamber-music master. He remained controversial for a time even after his death, especially the works from the 1870s on. George Bernard Shaw, one of the greatest musical critics of all, came around to Brahms ("my only mistake," he claimed) as late as the Twenties. Schoenberg considered himself a descendant of Brahms and his twelve-tone method of composition a simple extension of Brahmsian procedures. He even wrote an influential essay, "Brahms the Progressive," in the 1940s. Since Brahms himself anticipated them, it's surprising that many neo-classical composers seemed "allergic" to his music. However, Brahms now sits safely ensconced in the pantheon of western music, beyond the cavil of turf wars. It's still possible to dislike his music but not to discount its importance. ~ Steve Schwartz

Brahms' signature

Recommended Recordings

Alto Rhapsody for Alto, Male Chorus & Orchestra, Op. 53

EMI CDM567029-2
Alto Rhapsody; Symphony #1, Tragic Overture/EMI CDM567029-2 or 562742-2
Christa Ludwig (mezzo soprano), Otto Klemperer/Philharmonia Orchestra & Chorus
Alto Rhapsody; Gesang der Parzen, Op. 89; Rinaldo/Chandos CHAN10215
Anna Larsson (contralto), Gerd Albrecht/Danish National Symphony Orchestra & Choir
Alto Rhapsody; Symphony #2/Deutsche Grammophon 427643-2
Marjana Lipovšek (alto), Claudio Abbado/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra & Ernst-Senff Chorus
Alto Rhapsody; Begräbnisgesang, Gesang der Parzen, Nänie/Orfeo C025821A
Alfreda Hodgeson (alto), Bernard Haitink/Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra & Chorus

Core Repertoire - Start Here! Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80

Telarc CD-80463
Academic Festival Overture; Symphony #1/Telarc CD-80463
Charles Mackerras/Scottish Chamber Orchestra
Academic Festival Overture;Tragic Overture, Symphonies #1 & 2/Erato Ultima 8573-84067-2
Christoph von Dohnányi/Cleveland Orchestra
Academic Festival Overture;Tragic Overture, Symphonies #1-3/EMI Double Forte CZS569515-2
Eugen Jochum/London Philharmonic Orchestra
Academic Festival Overture, Op. 80/RCA Red Seal 7920-2-RC
Leonard Slatkin/Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra

Core Repertoire - Start Here! Concertos for Piano #1 & Core Repertoire - Start Here!2, Op. 15 & 83

Deutsche Grammophon Originals 447446-2
Piano Concertos #1 & 2; Fantasies Op. 116/Deutsche Grammophon Originals 447446-2
Emil Gilels (piano), Eugen Jochum/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra


Piano Concerto #2/RCA Living Stereo SACD 82876-66378-2
Artur Rubinstein (piano), Fritz Reiner/Chicago Symphony Orchestra


Piano Concerto #2; Piano Sonata #1/RCA Red Seal 82876-60860-2
Sviatoslav Richter (piano), Erich Leinsdorf/Chicago Symphony Orchestra


RCA Living Stereo 82876-66378-2
Piano Concertos #1 & 2; Tragic Overture, Academic Festival Overture/Sony Classical Masterworks MH2K63225
Leon Fleisher (piano), George Szell/Cleveland Orchestra


Piano Concertos #1 & 2; Tragic Overture, Academic Festival Overture, Haydn Variations/EMI Double Forte 72649
Daniel Barenboim (piano), John Barbirolli/New Philharmonia Orchestra


Piano Concertos #1 & 2; St. Anthony Variations, Haydn Variations/London Double Decca 470519-2
Vladimir Ashkenazy (piano), Bernard Haitink/Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra & Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
Sony Classical Masterworks MH2K63225


Piano Concertos #1 & 2; Tragic Overture, Academic Festival Overture/Sony Essential Classics SB2K89905
Rudolf Serkin (piano), George Szell/Cleveland Orchestra
















Core Repertoire - Start Here! Concerto for Violin in D Major, Op. 77

RCA Living Stereo SACD 82876-67896-2
Violin Concerto with Tchaikovsky/RCA Living Stereo Hybrid SACD 82876-67896-2
Yasha Heifetz (violin), Fritz Reiner/Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Violin Concerto; Violin Sonata #3/Teldec 0630-17144-2
Maxim Vengerov (violin), Daniel Barenboim/Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Violin Concerto/EMI CDM566992-2 or CDC747166-2
Itzhak Perlman (violin), Carlo Maria Giulini/Chicago Symphony Orchestra
Violin Concerto, "Double" Concerto/Deutsche Grammophon 469529-2
Teldec 0630-17144-2
Gil Shaham (violin), Claudio Abbado/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra
Violin Concerto with Mozart/EMI 74743 or CDM764632-2
David Oistrakh (violin), Otto Klemperer/French National Radio Orchestra
Violin Concerto with Mendelssohn/Deutsche Grammophon 445515-2
Anne-Sophie Mutter (violin), Herbert von Karajan/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra



"Double" Concerto for Violin & Cello, Op. 102

BBC Legends BBCL4149-2
"Double" Concerto with Dvořák/BBC Legends BBCL4149-2
Zino Francesatti (violin), Pierre Fournier (cello), Malcolm Sargent/BBC Symphony Orchestra


"Double" Concerto, Violin Concerto/Deutsche Grammophon 469529-2
Gil Shaham (violin), Jian Wang (cello), Claudio Abbado/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra


"Double" Concerto with Beethoven/EMI CDM566902-2
David Oistrakh (violin), Mstislav Rostropovich (cello), George Szell/Cleveland Orchestra



EMI CDM566902-2
"Double" Concerto with J.S. Bach & Mozart/RCA Living Stereo Hybrid SACD 88697-04605-2
Yasha Heifetz (violin), Fritz Reiner/Chicago Symphony Orchestra


"Double" Concerto, Violin Concerto/Teldec 0630-13137-2
Gidon Kremer (violin), Clemens Hagen (cello), Nikolaus Harnoncourt/Amsterdam Concertgebouw Orchestra


"Double" Concerto with Schumann/Naxos 8.550938
Ilya Kaler (violin), Maria Kliegel (cello), Andrew Constantine/Orchestra: Ireland National Symphony Orchestra

Core Repertoire - Start Here! German Requiem, Op. 45

Philips 432140-2
"Ein Deutsches Requiem"/Philips 432140-2
Charlotte Margiono (soprano), Rodney Gilfry (baritone), John Eliot Gardiner/Orchestre Révolutionnaire et Romantique & Monteverdi Choir
"Ein Deutsches Requiem"/EMI Encore 585054-2
Anna Tomowa-Sintow (soprano), José Van Dam (bass), Herbert von Karajan/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra/Vienna Singverein
"Ein Deutsches Requiem"/EMI Great Recordings Of The Century CDM566955-2
Elizabeth Schwarzkopf (soprano), Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau (baritone), Otto Klemperer/Philharmonia Orchestra & Chorus
"Ein Deutsches Requiem"/Telarc CD-80092
Arleen Augér (soprano), Richard Stilwell (baritone), Robert Shaw/Atlanta Symphony Orchestra & Chorus

Hungarian Dances

Philips 416459-2
21 "Hungarian" Dances, WoO 1 (original for piano 4-hands)/Philips 416459-2
Katia & Marielle Labèque (piano)
21 "Hungarian" Dances, WoO 1 (original for piano 4-hands); Waltzes/Claves CD50-8710
Duo Crommelynck
21 "Hungarian" Dances (orchestrations)/Naxos 8.550110
István Bogár/Budapest Symphony Orchestra
21 "Hungarian" Dances (orchestrations); Slavonic Dances, Scherzo capriccioso/Deutsche Grammophon 447434-2
Herbert von Karajan/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra

Piano Music (Fantasias, Intermezzos, Ballades, Waltzes, Rhapsodies, etc.)

Decca 455247-2
Complete Piano Music/Decca-London 455247-2
Julius Katchen (piano)


2 Rhapsodies Op. 79, 3 Intermezzos Op. 117, 4 Pieces Op. 118 and 4 Pieces Op. 119/Decca-London 417599-2
Radu Lupu (piano)


7 Fantasias Op. 116, 3 Intermezzos Op. 117, 4 Pieces Op. 118 & 4 Pieces Op. 119/Erato 0630-14350-2
Hélène Grimaud (piano)


7 Fantasias Op. 116, 3 Intermezzos Op. 117, 4 Pieces Op. 118, 4 Pieces Op. 119 & Handel Variations, Op. 24/Philips Duo 442589-2
Decca 417599-2
Stephen Bishop Kovacevich (piano)


Piano Sonata #3 Op. 5, Capriccio Op. 116, Intermezzo Op. 117 and 5 Hungarian Dance/RCA Red Seal 82876-52737-2
Evgeny Kissin (piano)


Complete Piano Music/RCA 69245-2-RG
Gerhard Oppitz (piano)






Quartets for Strings #1-3, Op. 51 #1 & 2 and Op. 67

Vox Box CDX5179
String Quartets #1-3 with Schubert/Vox Box CDX5179
Tokyo String Quartet


String Quartets #1-3, Clarinet Sonatas/Philips Duo 456320-2
Quartetto Italiano


String Quartets #1 & 2/Telarc CD-80346
Cleveland String Quartet


String Quartets #1-3; Piano Quintet/Hyperion CDD22018
Telarc CD-80346
New Budapest Quartet


String Quartets #1-3 with Dvořák/Deutsche Grammophon 457707-2
Amadeus String Quartet














Quartets for Piano & Strings (1-3), Op. 25, 26 & 60

Sony S2K45846
Piano Quartets #1-3/Sony S2K45846 or SM3K64520
Emmanuel Ax (piano), Isaac Stern (violin), Jaime Laredo (viola), Yo-Yo Ma (cello)
Piano Quartets #1-3 with Mahler/Virgin Classics VBD561615-2
Domus
Piano Quartet #1; Ballades/Deutsche Grammophon 447407-2
Emil Gilels (piano), Amadeus String Quartet
Piano Quartets #1-3/Philips Duo 454017-2
Walter Trampler (viola), Beaux Arts Trio

Core Repertoire - Start Here! Quintets for Strings, Op. 88 & 111

Hyperion CDA66804
String Quintets #1 & 2/Hyperion CDA66804
Raphael Ensemble


String Quintets #1 & 2; Quintets & Sextets/Deutsche Grammophon 419875-2
Cecil Aronowitz (viola)/Amadeus Quartet


String Quintets #1 & 2/Musique Dabringhaus & Grimm Gold MDG3071251-2
Hartmut Rohde (viola)/Leipzig String Quartet


String Quintets #1 & 2/Deutsche Grammophon 453420-2
Gérard Caussé (viola)/Hagen String Quartet
MD&G Gold 3071251


String Quintets #1 & 2/Naxos 8.553635
Bruno Pasquier (viola)/Ludwig String Quartet


String Quintets #1 & 2/Nonesuch 979068-2
Boston Symphony Chamber Players










Core Repertoire - Start Here! Quintet for Clarinet & Strings, Op. 115

Deutsche Grammophon 459641
Clarinet Quintet with Mozart Quintet/Deutsche Grammophon 459641-2
David Shifrin (clarinet)/Emerson String Quartet


Clarinet Quintet/Orfeo C068831A
Karl Leister (clarinet)/Vermeer Quartet


Clarinet Quintet; Clarinet Trio/Hyperion CDA66107
Thea King (clarinet)/Gabrieli String Quartet


Clarinet Quintet; String Quintet #2/Harmonia Mundi Musique D'abord HMA1951349
Michel Portal (clarinet)/Melos Quartet
Reference Recordings RR-40CD


Clarinet Quintet with Weber Quintet/Reference Recordings RR-40CD
Eddie Daniels (clarinet)/Composers String Quartet


Clarinet Quintet; String Quintet #2/Delos DE3066
David Shifrin (clarinet)/Chamber Music Northwest










Quintet for Piano & Strings, Op. 34

Deutsche Grammophon 474839
Piano Quintet/Deutsche Grammophon 474839-2
Maurizio Pollini (piano)/Quartetto Italiano


Piano Quintet/Musique Dabringhaus & Grimm Gold MDG3071218-2
Andreas Staier (piano)/Leipzig String Quartet


Piano Quintet; String Quartets/Hyperion CDD22018
Piers Lane (piano), New Budapest Quartet


Piano Quintet with Schumann Quintet/Naxos 8.550406
Jénö Jandó (piano)/Kodály Quartet

Core Repertoire - Start Here! Serenades for Orchestra (Core Repertoire - Start Here!1, 2), Op. 11 & 16

Telarc CD-80522
Serenades #1 & 2/Telarc CD-80522
Charles Mackerras/Scottish Chamber Orchestra


Serenade #2; Symphony #3/LSO Live CD 56 or Hybrid Multichannel SACD 544
Bernard Haitink/London Symphony Orchestra


Serenade #1/RCA 6247-2-RC
Leonard Slatkin/Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra


Serenade #2; Haydn Variations & Academic Festival Overture/RCA 7920-2-RC
LSO Live Hybrid Multichannel SACD 544
Leonard Slatkin/Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra


Serenades #1 & 2/Decca-London Eloquence 466672-2
Istvan Kertesz/London Symphony Orchestra















String Sextets, Op. 18 & 36

Naxos 8.550436
String Sextets #1 & 2/Naxos 8.550436
Stuttgart String Sextet


String Sextets #1 & 2/Sony Vivarte SK68252
L'Archibudelli


Sextets #1 & 2; Quintets/Deutsche Grammophon 419875-2
Cecil Aronowitz (viola), William Pleeth (cello)/Amadeus Quartet


String Sextets #1 & 2/Hyperion CDA66276 or CDA20276
Raphael Ensemble


String Sextets #1 & 2/Sony S2K45820
Isaac Stern (violin), Jaime Laredo (violin), Lin Cho-Liang (violin), Michael Tree (viola), Yo-Yo Ma (cello), Sharon Robinson (cello)














Sonatas for Cello & Piano, Op. 38 & 99

EMI 62758-2
Cello Sonatas #1 & 2/EMI 62758-2, 557293-2, 557750-0, 763298-2
Jacqueline Du Pré (cello), Daniel Barenboim (piano)


Cello Sonatas #1 & 2/Deutsche Grammophon 410510-2
Mstislav Rostropovich (cello), Rudolf Serkin (piano)


Cello Sonatas #1 & 2/Channel Classics CCS5493
Pieter Wispelwey (cello), Paul Komen (piano)
Deutsche Grammophon 410510-2


Cello Sonatas #1 & 2; Violin Sonata #3/RCA Victor Red Seal 59415, 63267 or Sony Classical SK48191
Yo-Yo Ma (cello), Emanuel Ax (piano)


Cello Sonatas #1 & 2/Hyperion CDA66159
Steven Isserlis (cello), Peter Evans (piano)








Sonatas for Viola or Clarinet, Op. 120

Orfeo C086841A
2 Clarinet Sonatas/Orfeo C086841A
Karl Leister (clarinet), Gerard Oppitz (piano)


2 Clarinet Sonatas; Scherzo & Songs/Naxos 8.553121
Kálmán Berkes (clarinet), Jénö Jandó (piano)


2 Clarinet Sonatas/RCA 60036-2-RC
Richard Stoltzman (clarinet), Richard Goode (piano)


2 Viola Sonatas/Bridge BCD-9021
Barbara Westphal (viola), Ursala Oppens (piano)
Naxos 8.553121


2 Viola Sonatas with Schumann/Chandos CHAN8550
Nobuko Imai (viola), Roger Vignoles (piano)


2 Viola Sonatas with Violin Sonatas/Deutsche Grammophon Double 453121-2
Pinchas Zukerman (viola), Daniel Barenboim (piano)










Sonatas for Violin & Piano, Op. 78, 100 & 108

EMI CDM566945
Violin Sonatas #1-3/EMI CDM566945-2
Itzhak Perlman (violin), Vladimir Ashkenazy (piano)


Violin Sonatas #1-3/Decca Legends 466393-2
Josef Suk (violin), Julius Katchen (piano)


Violin Sonatas #1-3/EMI Encore CDE574725-2
Anne-Sophie Mutter (violin), Alexis Weissenberg (piano)


Violin Sonatas #1-3 (w/ Busoni)/Deutsche Grammophon 423619-2
Gidon Kremer (violin), Valery Afanassiev (piano)

Core Repertoire - Start Here! Symphonies (Core Repertoire - Start Here!1, 2, Core Repertoire - Start Here!3, Core Repertoire - Start Here!4), Op. 68, 78, 90 & 98

RCA 09026-63348-2
Symphonies #1-4/RCA Red Seal 09026-63348-2
Günter Wand/North German Radio Symphony Orchestra, Hamburg


Symphonies #1-4, Haydn Variations & Tragic Overture/RCA Eurodisc 69220-2-RV
Kurt Sanderling/Staatskapelle Dresden


Symphonies #1-4, Alto Rhapsody, Haydn Variations, Academic Festival & Tragic Overture/EMI Great Recordings Of The Century 62760
Otto Klemperer/Philharmonia Orchestra


Symphony #1 with Wagner/Chesky CD19
Jascha Horenstein/Royal Philharmonic Orchestra
EMI 62760


Symphony #1 with Haydn Variations/Deutsche Grammophon 474166-2
Carlo Maria Giulini/Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra


Symphonies #2 & 3/Deutsche Grammophon 429153-2
Herbert von Karajan/Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra


Symphony #2, Academic Festival Overture/Deutsche Grammophon 445506-2
Leonard Bernstein/Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra


Deutsche Grammophon 445506

Symphonies #2 & 3/Sony SMK64471
Bruno Walter/Columbia Symphony Orchestra


Symphony #4, Tragic Overture/Deutsche Grammophon 445508-2
Leonard Bernstein/Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra


Symphony #4/Deutsche Grammophon 457706-2
Carlos Kleiber/Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra






Tragic Overture, Op. 81

EMI CDM567029
Tragic Overture; Symphony #1, Alto Rhapsody/EMI CDM567029-2
Otto Klemperer/Philharmonia Orchestra


Academic Festival Overture;Tragic Overture, Symphonies #1 & 2/Erato Ultima 8573-84067-2
Christoph von Dohnányi/Cleveland Orchestra


Tragic Overture, Symphony #4/Deutsche Grammophon 445508-2
Leonard Bernstein/Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra




Trio for Clarinet, Cello & Piano, Op. 114

MD&G 3010595
Clarinet Trio; Horn Trio/Dabringhaus & Grimm Gold MDG3010595-2
Dieter Klöcker (clarinet), Christoph Henkel (cello), Claudius Tanski (piano)


Clarinet Trio; Clarinet Quintet/Hyperion CDA66107
Thea King (clarinet), Karine Georgian (cello), Clifford Benson (piano)


Clarinet Trio; Horn Trio/Chandos CHAN8606
James Campbell (clarinet), Yuri Turovsky (cello), Luba Edlina (piano)


Clarinet Trio; Piano Trios #2 & 3/Arabesque Z6608
David Shifrin (clarinet), Colin Carr (cello), David Golub (piano)


Core Repertoire - Start Here! Trios for Piano & Strings Core Repertoire - Start Here!1, 2, 3 (Op. 8, 87 & 101)

CRD CD2412
Piano Trios #1-3/CRD CD2412
Isreal Piano Trio


Piano Trios #1-3/Teldec 76036
Fontenay Trio


Piano Trios #1-3; Horn and Clarinet Trios/Philips 438365-2
Beaux Arts Trio


Piano Trios #1-3; Piano Quartets/Sony SM3K64520
Isaac Stern (violin), Leonard Rose (cello), Eugene Istomin (piano)
Teldec 76036


Piano Trios #1-3/Chandos CHAN8334
Borodin Trio


Piano Trio #1; Horn Trio/Arabesque Z6607
David Golub (piano), Mark Kaplan (violin), Colin Carr (cello)


Piano Trios #2 & 3; Clarinet Trio/Arabesque Z6608
David Golub (piano), Mark Kaplan (violin), Colin Carr (cello)






Trio for Horn, Violin & Piano, Op. 40

Chandos CHAN8606
Horn Trio; Clarinet Trio/Dabringhaus & Grimm Gold MDG3010595-2
Sebastian Weigle (horn), Wolf Dieter Streicher (violin), Claudius Tanski (piano)


Horn Trio; Clarinet Trio/Chandos CHAN8606
Michael Thompson (horn), Rostislav Dubinsky (violin), Luba Edlina (piano)


Horn Trio; Piano Trio #1/Arabesque Z6607
David Jolley (horn), Mark Kaplan (violin), David Golub (piano)





Core Repertoire - Start Here! Variations on a Theme by Haydn (St. Anthony Variations), Op. 56a

Sony SMK64470
Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Symphony #1, Academic Festival Overture/Sony SMK64470
Bruno Walter/Columbia Symphony Orchestra
Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Serenade #2, Academic Festival Overture/RCA 7920-2-RC
Leonard Slatkin/Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra
Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Symphony #1/Teldec 2292-42429-2
Christoph von Dohnányi/Cleveland Orchestra
Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Symphony #1/Deutsche Grammophon 474166-2
Carlo Maria Giulini/Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra
Variations on a Theme by Haydn; Piano Concertos, Tragic Overture, Academic Festival Overture/EMI Double Forte 72649
John Barbirolli/New Philharmonia Orchestra
Trumpet